Effects of water quality on in vitro fertilization and development of bovine oocytes in protein-free medium
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|Authors:||Nagao, Y.;Saeki, K.;Hoshi, M.;Takahashi, Y.;Kanagawa, H.|
|Address:||Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060, Japan.|
Examination was made of the effects of water quality in medium preparation on fertilization and early development of bovine in vitro matured (IVM) oocytes in a protein-free medium. The IVM oocytes were inseminated and cultured for 7 d in protein-free media prepared with 4 different types of water preparations: tap, deionized, twice-distilled, and purified water using the Milli-Q system (Milli-Q water). High frequencies (70 to 83%) of normal fertilization were obtained in media prepared with all types of water. However, the frequency of development to the blastocyst stage in media prepared with Milli-Q water (31 +/- 3%) was significantly higher than with the 3 other types of water (11 to 13%). Moreover, the effects of storage period of Milli-Q water on early development of bovine embryos was also examined. The frequency of development to the blastocyst stage in media prepared with Milli-Q water immediately after preparation (fresh Milli-Q water; 35 +/- 4%) was significantly higher than for Milli-Q water stored for 1 wk (18 +/- 4%) or 2 wk (18 +/- 3%). Effects of commercially available purified water on early development of bovine embryos were also examined. The frequency of development to the blastocyst stage in media prepared with Milli-Q water (33 +/- 5%) was significantly higher than for purified water purchased from 3 different suppliers (Brand A; 21 +/- 6%, Brand B; 21 +/- 2%, Brand C; 21 +/- 4%). Each water sample was analyzed by the measurement of electrical conductivity, organic compounds and/or inorganic ion and endotoxin concentrations to evaluate purity. Fresh Milli-Q water showed the lowest level of electrical conductivity and contained the lowest concentration of organic compounds. These results indicate that in vitro fertilization of bovine oocytes is not affected by the water quality in the preparation of medium; however, early development of bovine embryos is seriously affected by the purification method and the storage period of water used for medium preparation.